Pick a phrase or question that resonates with you. When you wake up in the morning, do you immediately check your email or social media accounts? For instance, if you receive an email asking for work-related documents, you might be compelled to provide them immediately…even though you may have had plans to work on marketing your own side-business. Or if you open up Facebook and see one of your friends in a crisis, that becomes your focus, potentially keeping you from concentrating on your own issues or concerns.
Start your days focused on YOU and you will be in a much better state-of-mind to help others and get more accomplished all day. Simply close your eyes and imagine yourself excelling and being the best you. Put yourself in situations where you shine, visualizing the best possible outcome.
Be as specific as possible…and be sure to keep it positive. The purpose of all of this is to pass command from your conscious mind to your subconscious mind. Your subconscious mind wants to believe what you tell it good or bad and it will do whatever it takes to turn those commands into reality. Reading books offers many science-based benefits. Reading can boost your intelligence, increase your brainpower for up to 5 days, according to research conducted by Emory University , and even strengthen your ability to empathize with other people.
Joshua Becker , bestselling author of Simplify , has made it a goal to read a book a week because reading makes him a better leader, increases his worldview and knowledge base, and reinforces his self-discipline. I mean, who has hours and hours a day or week to just sit and read? If I want to read more, I do. By breaking the big process reading a whole book! I have a mentor and I call him every day. Even if all I do is leave him a message, this one simple task holds me accountable.
It also forces me to keep myself and my mind moving in a positive direction. Or at least find someone you trust who can be your accountability partner, someone to hold you to your word. ET recommends making a list of three people that you trust and respect. Have a conversation with each of these people and discuss exactly what it is that you want to accomplish. After the conversation, decide which of these individuals will serve best as a accountability partner for the specific milestone you are trying to reach.
You cannot ask and ask and not expect to give anything in return. Figure out what you can offer and actually give it. Spending time writing every day helps you become a better communicator, improves your ability to recall important information, and it also enhances your creativity.
Write in a diary format and you also have the added benefit of greater self-understanding. One of the first things I do every morning is write Morning Pages , a practice devised by Julia Cameron that clears my mind and helps to clarify what I want out of life. To do your own Morning Pages, simply sit down and write three pages. They can be about anything you want them to be. Just write each and every day. The point of this exercise is to work your brain and get your creative juices flowing.
They can be big ideas how to cure cancer or small ones ways get your cat to quit scratching the furniture. They say that everyone has at least one million-dollar idea in his or her lifetime. You may just find yours on this list! I plan up to six tasks that I want to complete during the day on mine and the reason this works is twofold. First, it helps me plan my day in a way that allows me to get the most out of it versus just performing random tasks and hoping that they move you forward. Second, creating a to-do list keeps me on task.
While all of these tips are meant to help you forage ahead, sometimes you just need to step back and give your mind a break. This revolutionary time management system is deceptively simple to learn, but life-changing when applied correctly. By utilizing this technique, I am now able to get 40 hours of work done in just All the while, keeping my energy levels more stable and eliminating burnout for the most part. According to The National Sleep Foundation a short nap of minutes can help to improve your mood, alertness and even performance.
Winston Churchill, John F. Kennedy, Thomas Edison and Salvador Dali were all regular nappers. Breaking your day into chunks helps you be the best you as too much time spent doing one thing can cause you to lose focus…and interest. Now, look at your own day and figure out how you can break it into chunks…and determine what you need to do to spend your time doing what you want to do as much as possible.
Jack Dorsey , co-founder of both Twitter and Square, used to manage both of these companies at the same time without getting overwhelmed. He did this by setting aside different tasks for different days of the week. This can give you the time you need to make headway in those particular areas…without putting your brain on overload. Being your best also requires that you take care of your body and are firing on all cylinders! Here are a few things you can add to your daily routine to do just that….
For instance, if you inhale for 6 seconds, you will hold for 24 seconds, and exhale for 12 seconds. This type of breathing brings energy to your body, making it healthier and less stressed in the process. The items you choose to consume each and every day can actually affect how well your brain functions, ultimately making it easier or harder for you to hit your goals. Research has found that your brain operates optimally when you consume a very specific amount of glucose 25 grams, to be exact in a form that is released slowly over time. Foods that fall into this category and have positive effects on your body and mind include:.
Do you fall into this group? If so, this can leave you feeling tired all of the time, result in more frequent headaches, and also lower your strength and stamina, making any routine at all difficult to create, let alone keep. One way to overcome this all-too-common occurrence is to have water with you at all times. Keep sipping the rest of the day too so you get your Mayo Clinic recommended intake of 9 cups daily for women and 13 cups for men.
Harvard Medical School says that the polyphenols found in tea have been found to do many good things for your body. Specifically, they are anti-inflammatory and provide antioxidant-like benefits. Here are some of the best teas to drink as well as the reasons why:. In his article The Healthiest Way to Work , Buffer content crafter extraordinaire Kevan Lee provides a few tips to help you get out of your chair and move more often.
Some to think about implementing in your own life are getting up every 20 minutes, using a standing desk, and sitting on a saddle or balance chair. Exercise is the one part of a daily routine that most everyone loves to hate. And there are tons of excuses not to exercise:. Other benefits of regular exercise include having an easier time controlling your weight, reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cancer, improved mood and more! Take a minute walk. Do yoga, stretches, or dance around your living room.
Get on the elliptical. Or do the Scientific 7-Minute Workout:. Sleep is extremely important to your overall health for a multitude of reasons.
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In the short term, not sleeping enough can affect your judgment, mood, and even your ability to retain information. In the long term, chronic sleep deprivation can lead to obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even early death. Remember, consistency and routine are key when it comes to creating healthy sleep habits. Epstein points to two simple tenets for healthy sleep: Just as mental and physical aspects of your daily routine can elevate you and push you forward, the same is true when you tend to yourself emotionally and spiritually.
Here are a few options to consider:. Engaging in this daily practice has a lot of positive benefits. Giovanni with the Live and Dare blog points out 76 of them, such as greater focus, better decision making and problem solving skills, improved memory, and an easier time managing hyperactivity or attention deficit disorder.
There are so many awesome guided meditations available for free online and for many people this is a great way to get started or to enhance your practice. Inspiration and motivation can come from many places—books, music, podcasts, videos, emails, other people. All you have to do is find the one or ones that resonate most with you and commit to engaging with them. Research has shown that inspiration can be activated, captured, and manipulated…and it has a major effect on important life outcomes. I have a few apps on my phone that I read daily to inspire and motivate me. They keep me centered and grounded, giving me a more stable mental foundation.
Another way to get inspired involves repeating positive affirmations, which is why I do this both in the morning and at night. In fact, researchers at Stanford University have found that affirmations have been shown to improve education, health, and even relationships.
So find a word or phrase that is empowering and motivating to you and repeat it over and over again to yourself. If you woke up tomorrow and only had the things you were thankful for today, what would you have? By spending time each day expressing gratitude for all of the blessings in your life, you do two things. Second, the more blessings you are thankful for, the more you draw in or attract.
Beyond just realizing your blessings, it also helps to actively appreciate them. For instance, I make sure I spend some time daily with my daughter and wife because I always want them to know how grateful I am to have them in my life. Come up with a list of all of the things that you are grateful for and go over it when you get up in the morning and again before you go to bed at night.
Imagine the impact this could have on them…and you! According to a study by San Francisco State University, learning something new makes you happier long-term. Locate and read as many of the reference articles from unit 1 as available with a minimum of 10 separate references. Emphasis will be on the information regarding the differences between youth and adult educational concepts. October 17 To increase my understanding of methods or formats for planning learning experiences.
November 21 To create film and edit videotapes of the self-directed learning student orientation class to be used for distance education students. Videotapes would allow distance education students access to the resources available for on campus self-directed learning students. The tapes would allow me hands on experience in developing an adult education tool. December 5 How are you going to know that you learned it? Verification Advising faculty member feedback Evaluation Creation of a satisfactory learning contract. The competencies and the learning contract will be presented to the advising faculty member.
The contract will be rated with regards to depth and practicality of the selected goals and activities. Comments for modification of the contract will be requested and the contract revised until all agree on its validity. The learning contract is valid. The student has set challenging, yet attainable goals and has clearly defined what will be learned, when it will be learned, what activities are involved, and how it will be assessed. A page research paper on the differences between youth and adult education will be written. The paper will be critiqued for comprehensiveness and usefulness by the advising faculty member.
An annotated bibliography of the reference material will be submitted with the paper. Specific feedback appears on the research paper. Marker decides that it was well done, with some more elaboration needed in the area of andragogical concepts. Make a list of methods or formats for organizing learning experiences with a brief description of each item. Try to include at least 2 novel methods. The list will be submitted to the advising faculty member.
An annotated bibliography of reference material will be submitted with the list. Each will be evaluated for thoroughness and creativity. Specific feedback appears on the list. Marker decides that it was extremely well done and presented some new and creative methods. Videotape the three one hour sessions of the night student orientation class. Develop a student workbook to accompany the videotapes. The videotape and workbook will be evaluated by the distance education office consultant and the advising faculty member for effectiveness, practicality, applicability, and depth.
This guide includes practical information on quantitative and qualitative methodologies in evaluations. It was originally written for program directors with direct responsibility for the ongoing evaluation of the W. Recommended framework for program evaluation in public health practice. Gazing into the oracle: This practical manual includes helpful tips to develop evaluations, tables illustrating evaluation approaches, evaluation planning and reporting templates, and resources if you want more information.
Avoiding type III errors in health education program evaluation: Handbook of applied social research methods. Randomized controlled experiments for evaluation and planning. In Handbook of applied social research methods, edited by Bickman L. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ;37 S Handbook for evaluating HIV education.
Qualitative and quantitative methods in evaluation research. In Understanding and practicing participatory evaluation , vol. The utilization of qualitative and quantitative data for health education program planning, implementation, and evaluation: Ten organizational practices of community health and development: American Journal of Preventive Medicine;11 6: Harvard Family Research Project.
In The Evaluation Exchange, vol. Evaluation in a complex adaptive system. Planning a program evaluation. University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension. Evaluating community initiatives for health and development. World Health Organization - Europe. Evaluating community efforts to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
User-friendly handbook for mixed method evaluations. Identifying and defining the dimensions of community capacity to provide a basis for measurement. Health Education and Behavior;25 3: In Statistics in Community health and development , edited by Stroup. Oxford University Press, In Handbook of applied social research methods , edited by Bickman. Improving health in the community: National Academy Press, The program evaluation standards: Harvard Business Review ;Jan-Feb Health promotion indicators and actions.
What independent sector learned from an evaluation of its own hard-to -measure programs. In A vision of evaluation, edited by ST Gray. In Handbook of applied social research methods, edited by Bickman, L. New Directions for Program Evaluation; What can you build with thousands of bricks? Musings on the cumulation of knowledge in program evaluation.
New Directions for Evaluation; National Quality Program , vol. National Institute of Standards and Technology. Health care criteria for performance excellence , vol. National Quality Program, Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Toward distinguishing empowerment evaluation and placing it in a larger context. Effective use and misuse of performance measurement. American Journal of Evaluation ;19 3: Perrin, E, Koshel J. Assessment of performance measures for community health and development, substance abuse, and mental health.
Handbook of training evaluation and measurement methods. Program evaluation tool kit: Evaluative inquiry for learning in organizations. Public Health Functions Project. The public health workforce: Public Health Training Network. Practical evaluation of public health programs.
Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation; Uses of evaluation as a means toward organizational effectiveness. In A vision of evaluation , edited by ST Gray. A minimalist theory of evaluation: American Journal of Evaluation. Foundations of program evaluation. Evaluation theory is who we are. American Journal of Evaluation: Planning ethically responsible research. Toward integrating qualitative and quantitative methods: A framework for assessing the effectiveness of disease and injury prevention.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: Evaluation strategies for communicating and reporting: United Way of America. United Way of America, General Accounting Office, Comprehensive quality programming and accountability: Journal of Primary Prevention ;19 1: Nothing as practical as a good theory: Have we learned anything new about the use of evaluation? American Journal of Evaluation;19 1: How can theory-based evaluation make greater headway? Evaluation Review ;21 4: Using program logic models to plan and evaluate education and prevention programs.
Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation. This book serves as a comprehensive guide to the evaluation process and its practical applications for sponsors, program managers, and evaluators. The Program Evaluation Standards: Skip to main content. A Framework for Program Evaluation: Chapter 36 Sections Section 1.
A Gateway to Tools Section 2. Community-based Participatory Research Section 3. Understanding Community Leadership, Evaluators, and Funders: What Are Their Interests? Choosing Evaluators Section 5. Developing an Evaluation Plan Section 6. The Tool Box needs your help to remain available. Toggle navigation Chapter Sections. Learn how program evaluation makes it easier for everyone involved in community health and development work to evaluate their efforts. Why evaluate community health and development programs? How do you evaluate a specific program? A framework for program evaluation What are some standards for "good" program evaluation?
Conducting optimal evaluations Around the world, there exist many programs and interventions developed to improve conditions in local communities. Examples of different types of programs include: Direct service interventions e. For example, it complements program management by: Helping to clarify program plans Improving communication among partners Gathering the feedback needed to improve and be accountable for program effectiveness It's important to remember, too, that evaluation is not a new activity for those of us working to improve our communities.
Before your organization starts with a program evaluation, your group should be very clear about the answers to the following questions: What will be evaluated? What criteria will be used to judge program performance? What standards of performance on the criteria must be reached for the program to be considered successful? What evidence will indicate performance on the criteria relative to the standards? What conclusions about program performance are justified based on the available evidence? Drive Smart, a program focused on reducing drunk driving through public education and intervention.
The number of community residents who are familiar with the program and its goals The number of people who use "Safe Rides" volunteer taxis to get home The percentage of people who report drinking and driving The reported number of single car night time crashes This is a common way to try to determine if the number of people who drive drunk is changing What standards of performance on the criteria must be reached for the program to be considered successful? A random telephone survey will demonstrate community residents' knowledge of the program and changes in reported behavior Logs from "Safe Rides" will tell how many people use their services Information on single car night time crashes will be gathered from police records What conclusions about program performance are justified based on the available evidence?
Are the changes we have seen in the level of drunk driving due to our efforts, or something else? Or if no or insufficient change in behavior or outcome, Should Drive Smart change what it is doing, or have we just not waited long enough to see results? The following framework provides an organized approach to answer these questions. A framework for program evaluation Program evaluation offers a way to understand and improve community health and development practice using methods that are useful, feasible, proper, and accurate. The framework contains two related dimensions: Steps in evaluation practice, and Standards for "good" evaluation.
Engage stakeholders Describe the program Focus the evaluation design Gather credible evidence Justify conclusions Ensure use and share lessons learned Understanding and adhering to these basic steps will improve most evaluation efforts. There are 30 specific standards, organized into the following four groups: Utility Feasibility Propriety Accuracy These standards help answer the question, "Will this evaluation be a 'good' evaluation? Engage Stakeholders Stakeholders are people or organizations that have something to gain or lose from what will be learned from an evaluation, and also in what will be done with that knowledge.
Three principle groups of stakeholders are important to involve: People or organizations involved in program operations may include community members, sponsors, collaborators, coalition partners, funding officials, administrators, managers, and staff. People or organizations served or affected by the program may include clients, family members, neighborhood organizations, academic institutions, elected and appointed officials, advocacy groups, and community residents. Individuals who are openly skeptical of or antagonistic toward the program may also be important to involve.
Opening an evaluation to opposing perspectives and enlisting the help of potential program opponents can strengthen the evaluation's credibility. They shouldn't be confused with primary intended users of the program, although some of them should be involved in this group. In fact, primary intended users should be a subset of all of the stakeholders who have been identified. A successful evaluation will designate primary intended users, such as program staff and funders, early in its development and maintain frequent interaction with them to be sure that the evaluation specifically addresses their values and needs.
Describe the Program A program description is a summary of the intervention being evaluated. Statement of need A statement of need describes the problem, goal, or opportunity that the program addresses; it also begins to imply what the program will do in response. Expectations Expectations are the program's intended results. Activities Activities are everything the program does to bring about changes. Resources Resources include the time, talent, equipment, information, money, and other assets available to conduct program activities.
Stage of development A program's stage of development reflects its maturity. Context A description of the program's context considers the important features of the environment in which the program operates. Logic model A logic model synthesizes the main program elements into a picture of how the program is supposed to work. Focus the Evaluation Design By focusing the evaluation design, we mean doing advance planning about where the evaluation is headed, and what steps it will take to get there. Among the issues to consider when focusing an evaluation are: Purpose Purpose refers to the general intent of the evaluation.
This happens, for example, when deciding whether to use a new approach e. Knowledge from such an evaluation will provide information about its practicality. For a developing program, information from evaluations of similar programs can provide the insight needed to clarify how its activities should be designed. To improve how things get done. This is appropriate in the implementation stage when an established program tries to describe what it has done.
This information can be used to describe program processes, to improve how the program operates, and to fine-tune the overall strategy. Evaluations done for this purpose include efforts to improve the quality, effectiveness, or efficiency of program activities.
To determine what the effects of the program are. Evaluations done for this purpose examine the relationship between program activities and observed consequences. For example, are more students finishing high school as a result of the program? Programs most appropriate for this type of evaluation are mature programs that are able to state clearly what happened and who it happened to.
Such evaluations should provide evidence about what the program's contribution was to reaching longer-term goals such as a decrease in child abuse or crime in the area. This type of evaluation helps establish the accountability, and thus, the credibility, of a program to funders and to the community. To affect those who participate in it. The logic and reflection required of evaluation participants can itself be a catalyst for self-directed change.
And so, one of the purposes of evaluating a program is for the process and results to have a positive influence. Empower program participants for example, being part of an evaluation can increase community members' sense of control over the program ; Supplement the program for example, using a follow-up questionnaire can reinforce the main messages of the program ; Promote staff development for example, by teaching staff how to collect, analyze, and interpret evidence ; or Contribute to organizational growth for example, the evaluation may clarify how the program relates to the organization's mission.
Users Users are the specific individuals who will receive evaluation findings.
Uses Uses describe what will be done with what is learned from the evaluation. Some specific examples of evaluation uses To gain insight: Assess needs and wants of community members Identify barriers to use of the program Learn how to best describe and measure program activities To improve how things get done: Refine plans for introducing a new practice Determine the extent to which plans were implemented Improve educational materials Enhance cultural competence Verify that participants' rights are protected Set priorities for staff training Make mid-course adjustments Clarify communication Determine if client satisfaction can be improved Compare costs to benefits Find out which participants benefit most from the program Mobilize community support for the program To determine what the effects of the program are: Assess skills development by program participants Compare changes in behavior over time Decide where to allocate new resources Document the level of success in accomplishing objectives Demonstrate that accountability requirements are fulfilled Use information from multiple evaluations to predict the likely effects of similar programs To affect participants: Reinforce messages of the program Stimulate dialogue and raise awareness about community issues Broaden consensus among partners about program goals Teach evaluation skills to staff and other stakeholders Gather success stories Support organizational change and improvement Questions The evaluation needs to answer specific questions.
Methods The methods available for an evaluation are drawn from behavioral science and social research and development. Agreements Agreements summarize the evaluation procedures and clarify everyone's roles and responsibilities. Gather Credible Evidence Credible evidence is the raw material of a good evaluation. The following features of evidence gathering typically affect how credible it is seen as being: Indicators Indicators translate general concepts about the program and its expected effects into specific, measurable parts.
Examples of indicators include: The program's capacity to deliver services The participation rate The level of client satisfaction The amount of intervention exposure how many people were exposed to the program, and for how long they were exposed Changes in participant behavior Changes in community conditions or norms Changes in the environment e. Sources Sources of evidence in an evaluation may be people, documents, or observations. Quality Quality refers to the appropriateness and integrity of information gathered in an evaluation. Quantity Quantity refers to the amount of evidence gathered in an evaluation.
Logistics By logistics , we mean the methods, timing, and physical infrastructure for gathering and handling evidence. Justify Conclusions The process of justifying conclusions recognizes that evidence in an evaluation does not necessarily speak for itself. Standards Standards reflect the values held by stakeholders about the program. Interpretation Interpretation is the effort to figure out what the findings mean. Judgements Judgments are statements about the merit, worth, or significance of the program.
Recommendations Recommendations are actions to consider as a result of the evaluation. Three things might increase the chances that recommendations will be relevant and well-received: Sharing draft recommendations Soliciting reactions from multiple stakeholders Presenting options instead of directive advice Justifying conclusions in an evaluation is a process that involves different possible steps. Ensure Use and Share Lessons Learned It is naive to assume that lessons learned in an evaluation will necessarily be used in decision making and subsequent action.
Design Design refers to how the evaluation's questions, methods, and overall processes are constructed. Preparation Preparation refers to the steps taken to get ready for the future uses of the evaluation findings.
Feedback Feedback is the communication that occurs among everyone involved in the evaluation. Follow-up Follow-up refers to the support that many users need during the evaluation and after they receive evaluation findings. Dissemination Dissemination is the process of communicating the procedures or the lessons learned from an evaluation to relevant audiences in a timely, unbiased, and consistent fashion.
Additional process uses for evaluation include: By defining indicators, what really matters to stakeholders becomes clear It helps make outcomes matter by changing the reinforcements connected with achieving positive results.