Land and Economy in Ancient Palestine


Some emigrated to North and South America and elsewhere in the world. In , the Gaza Strip was also abruptly cut off from its economic hinterland. The area was placed under military control by Egypt, which afterwards barely invested in its economy. In a later stage, Palestinians were offered education and job opportunities in Egypt. On the eve of the Israeli occupation, half of the working population in the West Bank were farmers or agriculturalists. Nonetheless, they only contributed 25 percent of the gross domestic product GDP. This was almost the same as the trade sector, wherein far fewer people found employment.

Both agriculture and industry were operated by small family businesses. For the second time in two decades, both regions were forced to re-orient economically, this time with far-reaching and paralyzing consequences. Since then, Israel has not only occupied but also heavily colonized Palestine. The outlines of this move were sketched in what is known as the Allon Plan , which was presented to the Israeli government only a month after the cessation of hostilities. As a result, the large Palestinian community in the West Bank would be cut off from the community in Jordan.

The construction of settlements around East Jerusalem would present the annexation of East Jerusalem as a fait accompli. This policy involved both state land as well as privately owned plots belonging to Palestinians, of which the right of ownership could not be demonstrated conclusively. Confiscation took place based upon military orders, issued by the military government which had been installed directly after the region was taken.

The Jewish character of the State of Israel would have weakened as a result. Moreover, Israel would have come into collision with the international community. The outcome of these policies was that between and , Israel confiscated 38 percent of the territory in the West Bank and 49 percent in the Gaza Strip mid, Israel withdrew its army and settlers from the Gaza Strip, nullifying the confiscation.

Israeli Restrictions Before the full dimensions of both developments became clear, an extensive system of permits and licenses was introduced based on military orders. Permits had to be applied for in order to purchase land, construct houses, start a business, and for the transport of goods, all import and export, and so forth.

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The red tape which came with these permits, and the often sluggish process of the military bureaucracy, drastically curtailed the elbow room of Palestinian businessmen. With the permit system, the Israeli occupying forces also had a weapon to punish Palestinians who in any way restricted the occupation.

After After , Israel was responsible for structural neglect of the physical infrastructure such as water pipes and the electricity and telecom networks. The same applies to the road network. In the s, it was possible to see exactly where the border was crossed from Israel into the West Bank on the road from Tel Aviv to Ramallah from the quality of the road surface and the absence of street lighting. Palestinian entrepreneurs were disadvantaged by this.

Medical and educational services had to call upon foreign financial support. All of this was in stark contrast to the high sums which Israel collected annually as a result of taxes and dues from the Palestinians.

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In the West Bank, there are mountain aquifers in the west and east, stretching to the Mediterranean Sea and Jordan , respectively. In his search for patterns of land tenure and the origins and effects of crises such as famine Pastor uses a wide variety of source material ranging from the familiar Josephus for the Hellenistic and Roman era, but also useful for alternative versions of biblical events to the less familiar biblical and post-biblical Hebrew literature and Hebrew inscriptions. All of this was in stark contrast to the high sums which Israel collected annually as a result of taxes and dues from the Palestinians. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video.

Conversely, heavily subsidized Israeli products and goods could be sold in Palestine. The result was that the Palestinian products were priced out of the market. As Israel gained control over the outer borders of Palestine, it gained complete control over Palestinian import and export.

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Land and Economy in Ancient Palestine is a study of the economic crises throughout the Second Temple Period. It establishes that the single factor of the. Well researched, clearly written, and admirably wide-ranging in its scope. This is a comprehensive study that commands the ancient material and is fully up to.

Palestine soon became the second most important market for Israel, after the United States. Ninety percent of the Palestinian import came from Israel, 70 percent of Palestinian export went to Israel products and goods which did not compete with Israeli products, or which had been produced by Palestinian subcontractors of Israeli companies. Given that total revenues from imports were twice as great as from export in the s and s, the Palestinian balance sheet showed a severe structural deficit. This was for a number of reasons. In the second year of the occupation, Israel allowed Palestinians to work in Israel — firstly unschooled labourers, especially in construction, afterwards also in industry and agriculture.

The Israeli labour market was keen to employ Palestinian workers as they were willing to work for lower wages than Israeli employees. Nonetheless, Palestinian workers earned more in Israel than under Palestinian employees if they had employment. However, it was forbidden for Palestinian workers to spend the evening and night in Israel once work was done.

They were left no option other than to commute between their homes and the workplace, which was possible given the reasonably short distances involved. The number of Palestinian labourers in Israel soon rose, according to official numbers, from 20, in , to 55, in , to 89, in , which was the equivalent of no less than 36 percent of the Palestinian work force.

Experts estimated the real number of Palestinian workers in Israel to be at least more than 25 percent higher. A substantial group of Palestinian workers and Israeli employees preferred to conduct business outside the official, bureaucratic channels circumventing the payment of taxes. In , they made up 22 percent of the total for the West Bank , and 37 percent for the Gaza Strip. Another reason for the increase in purchasing power was the increase in the number of Palestinian workers in the Gulf States after the October War of and the strong increase in oil revenues of oil producing countries.

The money transfers to families left behind subsequently also increased proportionally. Within the framework of this policy, Palestinian farmers could continue to export products to Jordan. Cheap Palestinian agricultural products were kept out of the Israeli market. By offering the Palestinians an economic breathing space, the political tensions remained controllable in a period when Israel was still consolidating the occupation.

Exports to Jordan were limited mostly to agricultural products. Jordan maintained strict regulations where other products were concerned, driven by the desire to protect its own industry against competition. Moreover, the Arab League had proclaimed a general boycott of Israel, and Jordan wanted to prevent Israeli products from entering the Arab market through a back door. The growth went hand in hand with stagnation in the development of the Palestinian economy, caused mostly by restrictive Israeli measures.

In both agriculture and industry, small family businesses, using elementary techniques, continued to be the trend. In , their part in the GNP was on the same level as in In other words, economic growth did take place, but economic development remained absent. This further increased the vulnerability of the Palestinian economy. Over the years, large deficits in the trade balance were plugged with revenues gained elsewhere Israel , the Gulf States — not with financial means generated by the Palestinian economy.

In other respects, too, these revenues have helped keep the Palestinian economy on its feet. The vulnerability of the economy in Palestine became painfully apparent in the second half of the s. As a result of sharply decreasing oil revenues, employment opportunities for Palestinian workers in the Gulf States declined. Of course, the First Intifada , which erupted in , also had negative effects on the Palestinian economy.

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It is noteworthy that the number of Palestinian workers remained more or less stable in Israel in the Intifada years Their purchasing power did lessen, as a result of the hyperinflation which was present in the Israeli economy at the time. The result of all these developments was that the economy in Palestine was completely unbalanced on the eve of the Oslo Process. However, these hopes were in vain. Instead, the subjugation continued under a new guise.

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In this, the monetary, fiscal and trade relations between Israel and the Palestinian National Authority were regulated for the length of the Oslo interim period Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video. Try the Kindle edition and experience these great reading features: Customer reviews There are no customer reviews yet.

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Land and Economy in Ancient Palestine

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